A sidewalk (chiefly North American English), pavement (British English and Philadelphia dialect), footpath (Australian English, Irish English, Indian English and New Zealand English) or footway (Engineering term) is a path for pedestrians that is situated alongside a road or formed like sidewalks that are alongside roads (such as a cement footpath through a park). A sidewalk may accommodate moderate changes in grade. However, "walkway" is a more complete term for support of walking, and includes stairs, ramps, paseos (passageways) and related off-street tools that provide for a developed pathway.
Construction of sidewalksIn the 19th century and early 20th century, sidewalks of wood were common in some locations. They may still be found at historic beach locations and in conservation areas to protect the land beneath and around, called boardwalks. Contemporary sidewalks are most often made of concrete (particularly in the United States and Canada), tarmac, asphalt, brick (particularly in Europe), stone, slab or (increasingly) rubberhttp://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-09-19-sidewalks_x.htm. Multi-use paths alongside roads are sometimes made of materials that are softer than cement, such as asphalt.
In the United States, the most common type of sidewalk consists of a poured concrete ribbon with cross-lying strain relief grooves at intervals of ~1 m; this is intended to minimize visible damage from tectonic and temperature fluctuations, both of which can crack longer segments. However, freeze-thaw cycles (in cold-weather regions) and tree root growth can eventually result in damage which requires repair. Brick sidewalks are found in some urban areas, usually for aesthetic purposes.
In the United Kingdom suburban pavements are most commonly constructed of tarmac similar to a typical roadway surface. In urban or inner-city areas pavements are most commonly constructed of slabs, stone, or brick depending upon the surrounding street architecture and furniture
Stone slabs called flagstones or flags are sometimes used where an attractive appearance is required, as in historic town centres. In other places, pre-cast concrete slabs (called paving slabs or, less correctly, paving stones) are used. These may be coloured or textured to resemble stone.
Effects of sidewalksThe Crash Reduction Factor (used to estimate the expected reduction of crashes during a given period) for the installation of sidewalks averages 74%. Note that, compared to sidewalks, the maximum speed limit is a much more significant factor in the likelihood of a vehicle/pedestrian crash. Sidewalk presence has a risk ratio of 0.118, which means that the likelihood of a site with a paved sidewalk being a crash site is 88.2 percent lower than a site without a sidewalk. The speed limit risk ratio is 1.116, which means that a 16.1-km/h (10-mi/h) increase in the limit yields a factor of (1.116)10 or 3.
- Los Alamos Walkability Advocacy Group
- PEDS a member-based advocacy group dedicated to making metro Atlanta safe and accessible for all pedestrians.
- Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), a U.S.A.-based clearinghouse for information for pedestrians (including transit users) and bicyclists.
footway in Catalan: Vorera
footway in Czech: Chodník
footway in Danish: Fortov
footway in German: Gehweg
footway in Spanish: Acera
footway in Esperanto: Trotuaro
footway in Basque: Espaloi
footway in French: Trottoir
footway in Scottish Gaelic: Cabhsair
footway in Croatian: Nogostup
footway in Indonesian: Trotoar
footway in Italian: Marciapiede
footway in Hebrew: מדרכה
footway in Macedonian: Тротоар
footway in Dutch: Voetpad
footway in Japanese: 歩道
footway in Norwegian: Fortau
footway in Polish: Chodnik (droga)
footway in Russian: Тротуар
footway in Swedish: Trottoar
footway in Turkish: Yaya kaldırımı
footway in Ukrainian: Тротуар
footway in Chinese: 人行道